Chess Dictionary

A move absolutely pure in terms of purpose is a term of the logical school, put forward at the dawn of the development of logical ideas; means that the idea of ​​a move reigns supreme and is not obscured by any extraneous moments, each move in a position has one and only goal.
Outpost - a cell that during the course of the game will no longer be able to get hit by the opponent's pawn. An outpost, protected by a player's pawn, becomes an excellent position for the rook to control the open file.
Author - the creator of the problem or study.
Author - the creator of the problem or study.
The author's intention is the main idea (theme) or a set of ideas (themes) in a chess problem or study.
Author's solution - a solution to a problem or etude, conceived by the author.
Azerbaijani Novotny is a kind of Novotny theme, which is a synthesis of the Finnish Novotny and the Romanian Novotny. For the first time presented in 1978 in the composition of Azerbaijani authors.
Activation - the theme in the sketch. In the initial position, some piece or pawn of White has no activity in movement, but White, by skillful play, achieves clearing the way, and the piece (pawn) is activated.
Activation of the ideological game is a method of work when drawing up sketches, in which a well-known idea is complicated by new tactical moments.
Active overlapping is a tactical technique, in defense black overlaps his long-range pieces.
The activity of the black king is a theme in the task composition, which consists in saturating the moves of the black king with tactical ideas. In the 1930s, the theme was actively developed by the chess composers of Rostov-on-Don.
Accent - a separate chess element introduced into the problem (study) to strengthen, expand the overall content.
Algebraic notation of position - sequential, first for white, and then for black, enumeration and writing of all the pieces present on the board, indicating the fields they occupy.
Algebraic notation - see Chess notation
Alternative session - a simultaneous game session, in which not one session, but two or more are performing, and they do not consult with each other.
Armageddon is a decisive game (usually in a tie-break), which is played on unusual conditions: White has 5 minutes to think it over, and Black has 4 minutes (or White 6 minutes, Black - 5 ), but White is only happy with the win (in case of a draw, Black is recognized as the winning side).
Attack is an offensive in a chess game, the most decisive way to achieve a goal. The success of an attack depends on many positional factors: advantage in the center or control over the central squares, more active positioning of pieces, superiority in forces on the attacked section of the board, the presence of the opposing side's vulnerable points in position, etc. In other words, the attack does not arise spontaneously, but is the result of a deeply thought out strategic plan.
The objects of attack can be different, among them the enemy king is the main one. Among the attacks on the king, the following types can be noted: Attack during one-sided castling. As a rule, with such an arrangement of kings, a figure game is played.
Attack in case of versatile castling. A pawn assault is usually used to break the king's cover.
Attack on the king stuck in the center. Such an attack occurs when, as a result of an unsuccessfully played opening, the king is deprived of the opportunity to hide on the flank. The objects of attack when attacking on the flank are weak pawns, vulnerable points in the enemy's camp, which can be advantageously occupied by pieces. The capture of open and half-open lines by rooks is of great importance for the successful completion of the attack. One of the typical, often encountered in modern tournament practice, types of attack on the flank is the so-called “attack of the pawn minority”.

Attack of the pawn minority is a typical strategic plan aimed at causing a weakening of the opponent's position, mainly on the queenside. In practice, the attack of the pawn minority is carried out most often by advancing the white a and b pawns on the black pawn chain a7 (a6) - b7 - c6 - d5. Such an offensive, if successful, leads to the creation of a weak pawn for Black and the breakthrough of White's pieces into the opponent's camp.
Battery - the position of two figures on the same line, and the figure standing behind is long-range; leaving the line in front of the figure (by whose name the battery is called) includes the action of the long-range figure. The battery can be: white, black, mixed; straight (acting on the square where the king of the opposite side is), indirect (the action of a long-range piece is directed to the square near the king); disguised (coming into play only after two or more pieces - black or white - leave the line of the long-range piece).
Crazy piece is an unprotected piece that continuously pursues the king (less often another piece), taking advantage of the fact that it cannot be taken due to a stalemate. In most cases, the rook plays the role of the "mad" piece. A combination with a mad piece allows the side in danger of losing to achieve a draw.

White declares checks by moving the rook along the g-file, if Black takes the rook, then stalemate is a draw.

White extra is a kind of problem where the white material is in a static position.
Blitz - a game with time control of less than 15 minutes per game (from July 1, 2013 - less than 10 minutes per game). In the case of application of time limit control, it is assumed that blitz is a game where less than 15 minutes are allotted for a game of 60 moves (from 1.7.2013 - less than 10). Blitz tournaments are held according to the usual rules, but with some changes, for example, an impossible move is considered a defeat.
Blockade - slowing down the movement of enemy pawns. The term "blockade", as well as the development of methods for its implementation, belongs to A. Nimzovich, who formulated the principles of the blockade in the book "My System" and the brochure "Chess Blockade". The essence of the blockade is that one puts one's piece in front of the enemy's pawn. Heavy pieces can also blockade "from afar", along the line of the position of the pawn. Before blocking a pawn, sometimes they try to slow down its advance and only then blockade.
Blockade is an important technique in the fight against pawn superiority. Sometimes it is useful to block even inactive pawns in order to create targets for the offensive. A blockade of two or more pawns can completely paralyze the opponent's forces. The blockade fields are convenient parking areas for figures, from where they, being fenced off from attack, themselves put pressure on the enemy's position. Blocking pieces in the center are especially strong, while at the edge of the board they are less active. Thus, it is possible to distinguish between strong and weak blockade, depending on the possible actions of the blocking piece.
Blockade 2. - a theme in the study, which is a kind of positional draw. It consists in the fact that the weaker side is saved by limiting the mobility and interaction of one or more enemy pieces.

Simkhovich. Draw. 1. Cg4 + Kpd6 2. Cf5 Ra2 3. Kxa2 ba2 4. Kpc1 a1Ф + 5. Cb1 and the black queen is securely blocked in the corner.

Blocking the field is a tactical technique in the composition. It consists in the fact that the black piece occupies a certain square, preventing its other piece from standing on it; the opposite side takes advantage of this circumstance. The blocking of the square can also occur in the play of white pieces.
Blocked pawn - a pawn whose movement is mechanically inhibited by an enemy piece standing directly in front of it.

Blocking is an idea of ​​a tactical blow, as a result of which an opponent's piece is forced to occupy a square necessary for another piece.
Rapid chess - a game with time control of 15 minutes or more, but less than 60 minutes per game (from July 1, 2013 - from 10 minutes per game). In the case of using time-added control, the time allotted for the game is calculated as it is assumed that rapid chess is a game where a game of 60 moves is allotted from 15 minutes (from 1.7.2013 - from 10). Rapid chess (Rapid) competitions are held according to the usual rules, but with some changes.
Variation is a series of moves that are logically connected to each other. A variation can have different ramifications depending on the opponent's responses. A quick calculation of variations, the ability of a chess player to foresee all possible ramifications is of great importance for achieving a successful game result. In the composition, a distinction is made between the main option, ideological options that reveal the main content of the problem or study, as well as side options. The word "variation" is also very common in openings. However, the concept of variation is broader here: sometimes this word means a whole opening system.

Perpetual attack - a way to achieve a draw, which consists in the fact that the weaker side continuously pursues one or more of the opponent's pieces, depriving him of the opportunity to use material or positional advantage. Particular cases of a perpetual attack are a perpetual check, a "mad" piece.

Troitsky. Draw. 1.gh7 Cf5 + 2. Ke4 Cxh7 3. Kpd2 Kb2 4. Kpc3 Ka4 + 5. Kpb4 Kb2 6. Kpc3 Kd1 + 7. Kpd2 =

Eternal check - continuously following one after another checks, from which the enemy king cannot hide. In this case, the game is considered to be drawn. However, the rules do not contain a clause about perpetual check and, therefore, a draw is fixed on a common basis, that is, with the consent of partners, three times repetition of the position or according to the 50-move rule.
Interaction of figures - a purposeful disposition of combat forces, subordinate to a certain plan. The interaction of pieces is one of the most important strategic principles of chess struggle. It starts already in the opening, although at this stage it mainly pursues the goals of harmonious development of the pieces, and takes on more concrete outlines in the middlegame, when the side's plans are clearly outlined.
Capture - (abbreviation "x") capture of an enemy piece or pawn. When captured, a piece or a pawn is put in place of the removed enemy. When capturing a pawn on the passage, the capturing pawn is placed on a square that was crossed by a pawn that has been advanced from its original position to two squares at once. When recording a game, it is not necessary to indicate the capture, that is, the "x" sign.
En route capture - capture of an enemy pawn, which has advanced two squares from the initial position at once and at the same time has become horizontally next to the enemy pawn. This capture can only be made on the next move. In this case, the opponent's pawn is removed as if it had advanced only one square.
For example, in response to e7-e5, with his pawn positioned on d5, White can take the enemy's one in the passage: dxe6.

Hanging pawns - two central connected pawns in the absence of their own pawns on adjacent files.

c4, d4 - hanging pawns.

Time - in chess has a double meaning. Time control, that is, the time that is allotted for making a certain number of moves to each partner, and time is the rate of development of events in the party. The second concept includes purely chess elements of the struggle: to get ahead of the opponent in development, in attack, to move pawns to queens faster, etc.
Revealed check - a kind of open attack, in which the attacking piece declares a check, that is, the piece, making a move, opens the line of action of another piece, which is under the attack of the king. Example:

Any retreat of the rook opens the bishop's line of action and leads to a revealed check; when the rook retreats to e8 or g6, a double check occurs.
Introductory game - a game in a sketch or a multi-step logical problem that precedes the author's idea, disguises it, increases the difficulty of the solution. Introductory play should be organically connected with the main idea of ​​the composition.
Second hand is a term meaning that Black imitates White's opening formation, but with a loss of tempo. The term "first hand" has the same meaning, that is, White uses the opening, which is usually played by Black, but with a tempo gain.
A wait-and-see move is one in which one side transfers the obligation to walk to the other. A wait-and-see move is of great importance when the enemy is in zugzwang. A wait-and-see move is often made in cases where there is no clear plan or it is necessary to find out the intentions of the enemy.
Cutting out a piece is a tactical technique in a task (mainly in a two-move), which consists in the fact that Black in defense stands on the line of the long-range white piece, closing its action on the square of the black king; White uses this circumstance to complete the mating attack.
Ledge is the right of the first move. In the starting position, White has the advantage of the move.
Gambit is a general name for the beginnings in which one of the sides (in most cases white) sacrifices material (usually a pawn) in the interests of early development or to gain an advantage in the center. The name "gambit" comes from the Italian "dare il gambetto" (substitute the leg) and arose during the heyday of the Italian chess school. If a sacrifice is accepted, an accepted gambit appears (in the names of openings, the word “accepted” is usually omitted), if it is rejected, a rejected gambit occurs; if, instead of accepting a sacrifice, the opposing party itself offers a sacrifice, a counter-gambit occurs. Gambits were especially widespread in the 19th - early 20th centuries.
Horizontal - a row of eight squares on a chessboard in a direction perpendicular to the line from partner to partner, or a horizontal row of eight squares on a chess diagram. The horizontal lines are designated by numbers from "1" to "8". In the initial position, white pieces are placed on the first and second ranks, and black pieces on the seventh and eighth. On the chess diagram, the horizontal line "1" is located at the bottom.

Grandmaster Draw - Since the end of the 19th century, due to the tendencies that have grown up on the basis of professionalism, there have been "peaceful" draws. A special tactic has been worked out - to defeat the weakest, to draw with the strongest; the term “grandmaster” draw arose. The FIDE rules state that the Competition Regulations may establish that players cannot agree to a draw before a certain number of moves, or at all - without the permission of the arbiter.
Double blow - an attack with one piece or pawn on two pieces or two important points of the enemy. A special case of a double blow is a pawn or knight fork, in which the attack is carried out by a pawn or knight.
Double check - (symbol ++) is a type of revealed check in which a piece or pawn leaving the line of action also declares a check. That is, a piece, making a move, attacks the king and opens the line of action of another piece, which also hits the king. With a double check, only one way of defense is possible - the retreat of the king. Example:

Any retreat of the rook opens the bishop's line of action and leads to a revealed check; when the rook retreats to e8 or g6, a double check occurs.
Two-move (two-move problem) - a problem with a task: White starts and mates Black in two moves. Until the last quarter of the 19th century, the two-way movement was not widespread. Only as a result of the work of Czech and English composers, the two-step was recognized as a full-fledged form of the given creativity. The two-way movement was especially developed in the XX century.
Opening - the first stage of the game, during which the opponents strive to develop their pieces and create the preconditions for subsequent operations. The opening obeys the general laws of chess strategy and tactics, and, first of all, the basic strategic principle of the interaction of pieces and pawns.
The main tasks of the opening: capture of the center, rapid development of pieces, ensuring the safety of the king, connecting heavy pieces.
Based on the principles of the opening strategy, one should not waste time, and therefore (except for cases when tactical threats are created or reflected), make several moves with one piece, advance extreme pawns, etc. There is no exact border separating the opening from the middlegame, but it is always necessary to link the mobilization plan with the middlegame and even the endgame.
Demarcation line - this is how the line between the 4th and 5th contours is called.

Children's mat is a mat often encountered in the games of beginners. It turns out, for example, after such moves: 1.e4 e5 2. Bc4 Bc5 3. Qf3 Nc6 4. Qxf7 #

Diagonal - straight lines of squares of the same color, touching the corners, are called diagonals. The diagonals a1-h8 and h1-a8 are called large.

Replaying - the end of a game that remains unfinished in regular time or during one of the previous replayings. When the game is resumed, the position on the board is restored, the control clock is put down and the recorded move is played in accordance with the rules.
Currently, due to the development of computer technology, the game with replaying has practically gone out of use.
Domination - control over certain squares of the board, which, as a result, are inaccessible to the attacked piece or opponent's pieces. As a theme, domination is often found in sketches.
Chess board - a square of 64 (eight by eight) equal in size, alternately spaced light and dark square cells. Light cells are called white fields, dark cells - black. The chessboard is positioned so that there is a black field to the left of the player. In the diagrams, the chessboard is positioned so that there are white pieces in the starting position at the bottom.

Each field has a designation used to record the course of a game or a specific position with a special chess notation.

There are three types of rows of fields: vertical, horizontal (straight rows of fields, going vertically and horizontally, respectively) and diagonals (rows of fields of the same color, touching the corners). The verticals "a" - "d" form the queenside; "E" - "h" - kingside. The squares d4-d5-e5-e4 are called central, or center. Sometimes (as opposed to the "small" center) they speak of a "large" center, by which they mean a square bounded by squares c3, c6, f3 and f6.
Dual (English dual) - a partial side solution, that is, the ability to solve a problem or study in variants from the second or subsequent moves, different from the author's. Dual in ideological (thematic) variants of the problem are unacceptable. In the study, admissible and unacceptable duals are distinguished, although there is no consensus on this issue. In side (not thematic) variants, duals are allowed. A stupid checkmate - it turns out as a result of the shortest possible game: only 2 moves are needed: 1.f4 e6 2.g4 Qh4 #.

Uniqueness of the solution is the main formally constructive requirement in the composition. See Solution to the problem (study). The naturalness of the starting position is one of the main requirements of the composition aesthetics, which is that the starting position should, as far as possible, resemble the position from the party. This requirement is especially important in a sketch composition.
Lure - the idea of a tactical blow, as a result of which the opponent's piece is lured to an unfavorable field for him.
Problem is an artificial position in which one of the sides (usually White) is asked to complete a task, as a rule, to give mate in a certain number of moves. By assignment, tasks are divided into two groups:
1) on a straight mate - White starts and gives mate to Black in N moves (in short, checkmate in N moves); distinguish between: a) two-movers, b) three-movers, c) four-movers, d) multi-movers;
2) with a modified task - back mats, cooperative mats, stalemate, etc. The solution to the problem is to find the only way conceived by the author leading to the task. The more hidden the solution to the problem, the more difficult it is, the stronger the aesthetic effect. This is achieved by disguising the opening move and the combination itself, as well as by providing Black with active defense options. The task must comply with the basic principles of chess composition. On the way of the development of the problem, these principles have undergone significant changes. The concept of content developed, the range of topics expanded, requirements for form changed, various styles and directions appeared and disappeared.
Statistic problem is a problem that is formed by thematic figures and extras (or just extras)
A joke problem - a problem in a position or solution of which a violation of a chess rule is allowed: for example, in the initial position on the board there are 9 white pawns, and only the removal of any of them leads to mate in a given number moves; to solve the problem, you need to turn the board 90 ° or finish castling (“checkmate in half a move”), etc.
Mudding - deprivation of mobility of the figure. Embedding can be a theme in a problem or study. Distinguish between the theme of immuring Kling, where the weaker side seeks to escape, using the immuring of his figure for a stalemate, and the topic of immuring up Seeberger, where the stronger side seeks to put the opponent in a zugzwang position or win a walled (locked) figure; in the latter case, brickwork can be complete or partial.
Recording a game - recording the flow of a game in a special way called chess notation.
During the game, each player is required to keep a record of his and his partner's moves, as clearly and legibly as possible, in algebraic notation, on the form provided for this competition. It is forbidden to write down moves in advance, unless the player requires a draw according to the rule of three times repetition of the position or the rule of fifty moves. A player can respond to his partner's move before writing it down, but he must write down his previous move before making the next. Both players must mark the offer of a draw on the scoresheet. If a player is unable to keep score himself, he may provide an assistant who must be approved by the referee, or he may ask to be provided with an assistant to record the moves. His clock must be adjusted by the referee.
Ambush - the position of a long-range piece behind his own or someone else's piece, after the departure of which the action of the long-range piece on a certain square or line is manifested. Capturing a point is the idea of ​​a tactical strike, as a result of which a piece is introduced to the desired square.

1.Qg6 fg 2.fg #

Defense - reflection of the offensive actions of the enemy. The chess player leading the defense is, to a certain extent, subordinate in his actions to the intentions of the opponent. Defense can be passive or active. With passive defense, one has to confine himself to purely defensive measures, creating maximum difficulties for the enemy. Active defense, in addition to repelling immediate threats, provides for the preparation and conduct of a counter strike in the most vulnerable spot of the enemy's position. A counterattack is the most effective defense method. When conducting a defense, it is necessary to take into account all available strategic and tactical means: try to cause a weakening of the enemy's position, use the tactical opportunities that appear, remember that each exchange of a strong attacking piece of the enemy weakens his onslaught. Sometimes the idea of ​​a stalemate is used as a way of protection.
The term "defense" in chess has another meaning as well. This is the name of many opening formations determined by black moves (for example, the Alekhine Defense, French Defense, Nimzowitsch Defense, etc.)
Blunder is a gross mistake leading to checkmate, material losses or a sharp deterioration in position.
Mirror mate (stalemate) - the final position in the problem (study), in which all fields of the mate (stalemate) zone are free of figures.
Idea of ​​a combination - a method representing a specific idea that helps, based on motives, to see and achieve the theme of a combination, for example: enticement, distraction, overlapping, etc.
Idea of ​​the problem (study) - the idea put by the author as the basis of the work. Ideas are divided into elementary (for example, overlapping, blocking) and complex (for example, a combination of beautiful mats). An idea can be drawn from a practical batch; at the same time, many ideas discovered by composers are used in practice.
Overprotection is a term introduced into the theory by A. Nimzovich. The essence of redundant defense is to defend an important point in your position with a “margin” (that is, with more defending pieces than attackers) and free your hands for operations on other parts of the board. Excessive defense should only be applied to strong points, as overprotection of less important objects can lead to a passive position of the defending pieces. Weak points should be defended in excess only if they help the defense of other strong points.
An isolated pawn - a pawn on adjacent files with no pawns of its own.

d4 - an isolated pawn.
An isolated pawn is weak if it is blocked and the square in front of it can be profitably occupied by an enemy piece. However, in modern tournament practice, it is often allowed to form an isolated pawn in its own camp, if the fields controlled by it can be used to advantage.
Illusory solution (game) - variants that are obvious in the initial position of the problem, which change after the first move of the solution. An illusory solution (especially if it is underlined by a false trail) makes it difficult to find a valid solution. The illusory solution is of great importance in the modern two-move on the topic of changing the game, where it is included in the content of the problem.
Initiative (from Latin initium) - an initiative, a beginning. Initiative in chess is a manifestation of activity aimed at creating threats to the enemy, constraining his position, limiting the mobility of the opponent's pieces, his capabilities. The factor of initiative in chess is of great importance. The growth and development of the initiative is closely connected with the strengthening of the interaction of the figures and with the disorganization of the actions of the enemy's combat forces. For the sake of seizing the initiative, you can make positional concessions or material sacrifices. A correct assessment of the initiative factor requires the mandatory consideration of its strength and duration, since the initiative may turn out to be temporary and gradually disappear. The best means of neutralizing the initiative is a counterattack.
Quality is a specific chess term. To win (lose) an exchange means to get (give) a rook for a minor piece, that is, for a bishop or a knight.
Kipergan ' (from French qui perd gagne - who loses, he wins) - reverse mate problems.
Key squares - in the endgame, the so-called squares, the occupation of which by a king or other piece ensures a win regardless of the turn of the move.

b6, c6, d6 are key squares.
Team competition is a chess competition in which teams are participants (as opposed to a personal competition where individual chess players participate).
Team competitions can be held in the form of a match, tournament, match-tournament. Typically, team members are assigned to the boards depending on qualifications, ratings, etc. In team competitions, team members compete on the same boards. Places are determined by the sum of individual results of team members or by the results of matches (winning a match - 2 points, draw - 1, loss - 0).
Along with the team classification (only the results of the teams as a whole are taken into account), the personal-team classification is applied (the results of teams and individual participants are taken into account). Team tournaments and match tournaments can be played in a round robin system, a knockout system, a Swiss system.
In team matches, the Scheveningen system is sometimes used, in which each member of one team meets all members of the other team.
Combination is a forced option that uses elements of tactics and implements special conditions in a position to achieve a particular goal. A characteristic, usually accompanying feature of the combination is sacrifice.
Special conditions may include: the location of the enemy king, who will be threatened by checkmate or perpetual check; in the presence of unprotected pieces or in the possibility of attack by a weaker piece on a strong one; in a far advanced passed pawn; in the absence of moves for almost all of their pieces (stalemate combinations).
These special conditions allow the side carrying out the combination to choose a variant using at least two elements of tactics (double strike, pin, etc.). This option is forced, since each move either creates a threat or reflects it.
The purpose of a combination can be to achieve mate, stalemate, gain material or positional advantage, repel an opponent's attack, facilitate defense, etc. A sacrifice, that is, voluntarily giving the opponent a material advantage, is almost always included in the combination.
The combination embodies the most essential elements of the beauty of chess. Its aesthetic impact is based on originality (unexpectedness), expediency, consistency (emergence on the basis of the entire development of the struggle) and complexity (duration, numerous ramifications). Combinations are more beautiful if forced moves alternate with quiet ones that do not create obvious threats.
Compensation - the availability of certain benefits instead of certain concessions. Compensation can be material: for example, for a sacrificed queen, one of the sides receives a rook, minor piece and two pawns, or for a surrendered rook - a minor piece and two pawns. Compensation can also be positional, when instead of the material damage incurred there is an attack, initiative, a better disposition of forces, etc.
Композитор шахматный — составитель шахматных задач и этюдов. Составители задач называют проблемистами, этюдов — этюдистами.
Chess composition is a special area of ​​chess creativity, aimed at revealing the beauty of a chess combination. Unlike a game where two opponents are fighting, one author creates a composition. The creative process in composition consists in creating artificial positions with a specific task for one of the sides, usually for whites. According to the assignment, two types of compositions are distinguished: tasks and sketches. They are published in print, proposed for solution, and participate in competitions of chess composers.
The composition has almost a thousand-year history. In the process of developing the composition, aesthetic principles were developed that serve as criteria for assessing the artistic qualities of tasks and sketches.
A problem or study as a chess piece has a right to exist only if its position can be obtained from the initial position of the pieces in the game. Artistic requirements for a composition are based on the following basic principles: economy of funds; uniqueness of the solution; complete and comprehensive presentation of the combination, in particular by repeating the main idea of ​​the work. Composition grew out of practical play and remains connected with it throughout its development.
The inseparable connection between the composition and the part lies not only in the generality of the playing basis, but mainly in the mutual penetration and enrichment of ideas and combinations. On the one hand, composers draw ideas for their works from the part, on the other, many ideas and combinations discovered by composers are then used in practical struggle. It is also important that solving problems and studies contributes to the development of the combination vision of chess players.
Consolidation - strengthening the position, uniting the efforts of disparate figures to achieve the goals.
Consultation party - a party that is conducted on one or both sides by a group of chess players called consultants.
In addition to individual consulting parties, competitions (matches, tournaments) are possible, in which the consultants are partly or completely.
Counterattack - an attack launched in response to an enemy attack. The possibility of a counterattack often arises after repelling an opponent's attack, being a natural reaction to a violation of the harmonic interaction of figures caused by it or a weakening of the attacker's position. To conduct an attack, the enemy tries to concentrate his main forces in the attacked sector, therefore the possibility of a counterattack most often arises in another sector of the front, weakened by the enemy. A counterattack is the most effective, active method of defense.
Counter-game - a counter game in response to the active actions of the enemy.
Time control - limiting the time for thinking about moves.
Until the middle of the 19th century, chess competitions were held without time limits for thinking about moves. However, with the match Labourdone - McDonnel (1834), complaints begin that some chess players think too long on moves, as a result of which relatively short games drag on for many hours. It got to the point that in the London International Tournament, 1851, Staunton, with a score of +6, -2, = 3, passed the match for the III prize to Williams, whose "slow-wittedness" exceeded all limits.
In the match Harwitz-Leventhal (1853), the time limit was applied for the first time. Both in this match and in a number of subsequent competitions, the time for thinking over each separate move was limited. "Kara" was usually a fine. An hourglass or a clock with an open pendulum was used to control the time.
The new rule, although not immediately, was introduced into the practice of chess competitions. Gradually, the current rules were established: "serial" control (setting a time limit not for each individual move, but for a certain series of moves), accumulation of time (the transition of unspent time to thinking over the next control series of moves), credit for a loss for a delay in time.
Of great importance was the invention of a double clock with a mechanical regulator, first used in the London International Tournament, 1883. At first, there was a time limit of 15 moves per hour. Since the end of the 19th century, control of 30 moves for 2 hours and 15 moves for each subsequent hour has become universally established, then the most common control became 40 moves for 2 "# 178; hours and 16 moves for each subsequent hour.
Currently, due to the cancellation of replay, time control until the end of the game is applied, as well as control with the addition of time for each move and control with a time delay.
Time control with an addition for each move (Fischer's control) - modern time control in which, after each move, a certain time specified in the regulations is added. For example, two hours are allotted for the whole game, while for each move starting from the first one adds 30 seconds or two hours for the first 40 moves, then one hour to the end of the game, adding 30 seconds starting from move 41.
Time control with a delay (Bronstein's control) is a modern time control in which the time allotted for the game begins to decrease not immediately as the enemy turned the clock, but with a certain delay specified in the regulations. A significant difference from Fischer's control is that the time added for each move does not accumulate, that is, it makes no sense to make a series of optional moves in order to accumulate time for prolonged reflection.
Counter chances - oncoming opportunities in a position, as opposed to those of the enemy.
Knight - moves and takes in a peculiar movement: two squares vertically or horizontally, and then, at an angle of 90 degrees to the nearest square. It turns out the letter "G" (in the Latin alphabet "L"). The FIDE rules define a knight's move as a move to one of the squares closest to the one on which it stands, but not on the same file, file or diagonal. The horse is abbreviated - K, graphically -, in English - N, sometimes Kt (Knight, knight), in Spanish - C (Caballo, horse).

Thus, with each of its moves, the knight from the white square goes to the black square, and from the black square to the white square. Unlike all pieces, a knight can cross a square occupied by another piece (his or his opponent's). In the initial position, each side has two knights. White is located on the b1 and g1 squares, black on b8 and g8. In terms of strength, a knight is approximately equal to a bishop or three pawns.
Cooperative checkmate is a type of problems related to the field of "fairy chess". By condition, Black does not oppose White's intentions, as in problems of the usual type, but, on the contrary, helps him to mate the black king in a given number of moves. As a rule, Black starts the decision. Umnov. Cooperative checkmate in 2 moves.

0... Kg3 1. Фxe4 Крf1 2. Лf4#

Kingside is a part of the chessboard, consisting of verticals from "e" to "h".

The King is the most important piece, since the ultimate goal of chess is to destroy (mate) the opponent's king. The king moves and takes in any direction to one adjacent square that is not under attack by the opponent's pieces. The opponent's pieces are considered to attack the square, even if they cannot move. The king is abbreviated as - Kr, graphically -, in English - K (King, king), in Spanish - R (Rey, king).

Under certain conditions, once during the game, the king can make a joint move with the rook, called castling. In the initial position, each side has one king. White king is located on e1, black - on e8.
Correct combination - a combination correct in all variations. In the same sense, the concept of correctness is applied in chess to move, variation, sacrifice, play, etc.
Progress Ratio is an additional indicator used to determine the occupied places by participants who have scored an equal number of points.
The Progress Ratio is the sum of the progressive number of points, that is, the sum of the number of points a player has after each round.
The truncated progress rate is the cumulative total of points from which the number of points after one or more rounds is subtracted, starting with the first round.
Fortress is a theme in the study, which is a kind of positional draw, where the weaker side is saved by creating an impregnable position.

Lazar. Draw.
1.b6 Ra8 2.a5 Rd8 3. Ke1 Rd7 4. Cg6 + Kd8 5. Kf1 Rg7 6. Kg1 Rxg6 + 7. Kh1. A fortress arose.

Circle - a completed cycle of a match-tournament, during which each participant plays one game with everyone else.
Round robin is a tournament system in which each participant, in the order determined by the tables of the tournament queue, plays with everyone else.
Maneuvering is a term coined by Nimzowitsch who defined maneuvering as follows: “The process of maneuvering directed against two enemy weaknesses could be roughly described as follows: two weaknesses, which are quite defensible in themselves, are alternately taken under fire, moreover, the attacker relies mainly on the territorial superiority he has, on the better condition of his lines of communication. The game is lost because at some moment it turns out to be impossible for the defender to keep up with the enemy in the speed of regrouping forces ...
It is possible to maneuver against one weakness; in this case, it is necessary that the variety of methods of attack (for example, frontal, flanking, flanking attacks) compensate for the missing variety of weaknesses. " Thus, maneuvering is one of the types of maneuvering.
Rook - moves and takes vertically or horizontally to any square. The rook cannot move across a square occupied by another piece. The rook is abbreviated as L, graphically, in English - R (Rook), in Spanish - T (Torre, tower).

In the initial position, each side has two rooks. White rooks are located on the corner squares a1 and h1, black - on a8 and h8. The strength of the rook is approximately equal to a minor piece plus one and a half to two pawns; two rooks are approximately equal to three minor pieces or a queen. The name "boat" goes back to the Indian name "ship" - a piece that occupied a corner square in its initial position; the eastern Slavs renamed it a boat, which was their means of transportation.
Easy game - a game that is not of an official nature, played usually at an accelerated pace, with a deviation from some of the rules adopted in competitions (time control, recording, etc.).
Minor pieces is a common name for bishops and knights.
Trap is a maneuver that, at first glance, gives certain advantages for the other side, but in fact lures the enemy into an unfavorable situation for him. For example, here are two opening pitfalls:

3 ... Nd4 (trap) 4. Nxe5? Qg5 !, and White suffers material losses.

4 ... Kbd7 (trap) ed 6. Nxd5? Nxd5 7. Bd8 Bb4 +, and White is left without a piece.

There is, however, a major difference between the two. In the first case, if White played 4. Nxd4 instead of 6 ... Nxe5, Black's whole trap play was not justified, and he would have to come to terms with a worse position. In the second case, Black pursued the goals of planned development, setting a trap only along the way. Hence the conclusion: it is not recommended to play on traps if, with the correct answers of the opponent, you can stay with a worse position, and you can set traps in those cases when the trap, even if solved, will not lead to a deterioration in your own position or the position is already so bad that only the trap may give chances of salvation.
False trail is an apparent way to solving a problem (etude), in reality it is refuted in a subtle and unique way. If a false trail is associated with a topic and emphasizes it, it is called thematic. The presence of a false trail makes the decision difficult and is considered a virtue of the composition; a thematic false trail is included in its content.
Baby (baby) - a composition, in the initial position of which the number of figures does not exceed five.
Maneuver - one or more moves with a piece (s) to achieve a specific goal. As a result of a successful maneuver, the position of the pieces improves, and threats to the enemy's position are created.
Maneuvering - a series of maneuvers by various figures, which are of a more or less lengthy nature, but do not always have a clear specific purpose. Along with expectant maneuvering, there is also forced, defensive, and planned maneuvering. Maneuvering is often used in closed-type positions to regroup pieces without a visible offensive plan yet.
Checkmate - (graphic #) a check from which there is no defense. With the announcement of the checkmate to the king, the goal of the chess struggle is considered achieved, and the game ends in a victory (gain) of the side that gave the checkmate. Some types of mat received special names: stupid mat, children's mat, stale mat; epaulet mat. The word mate is of Arabic origin ("died"). When recording a game, it is not necessary to indicate the checkmate, that is, the "#" sign.
Material is a common name for pieces and pawns.
The mating zone is the zone in the center of which the mated king is located. In the corner of the board, the matte zone consists of four fields, at the edge of the board - of six, in other cases - of nine.
Matt net - the space of the chessboard, in which the movement of the enemy king is limited and where he is threatened with checkmate.
A match is a chess competition between two opponents. Individual matches are played for most of a certain number of games (for example, the current world championship matches - 12 games), less often - up to a certain number of wins (for example, the Alekhine-Capablanca world championship match, 1927 - up to 6 wins). For team matches see Team Competition.
Match-tournament is a tournament held in a round-robin system in several rounds, that is, a tournament where all participants meet each other several times.
Mill is a typical combination based on a sequential alternation of checks and revealed checks announced by the attacking side. The ending of the game Torre - Lasker (Moscow, 1925) is a classic example of Mill:

1.Cf6! Qxh5 2. Rxg7 + Kph8 3. Rxf7 + Kpg8 4. Rg7 + Kph8 5. Rxb7 + Kpg8 6. Rg7 + Kph8 7. Rg5 + Kph7 8. Rxh5 and White won.

Meredith is a problem (usually a two-move), in the initial position of which the number of pieces does not exceed twelve. The name is given in honor of the American problemist V. Meredith.
Miniature - a problem (study), in the initial position of which the number of figures does not exceed seven. The name was given in 1902 by the German problemist O. Blumenthal. Miniatures are very popular with chess fans.
Minimal problem - a problem in which white, besides the king, has only one piece. The name was given in 1934 by the Austrian problemist I. Galumbirek.
Midgame (mid game) - the central stage of the game. It is characterized by a relatively large number of forces of the opposing sides. The middlegame is also characterized by the passive role of kings and the emergence of threats in those areas where they are located. Such a definition is to a certain extent formal, since the sharply delineated line of transition from the opening to the middlegame and from the middlegame to the endgame cannot always be found.
If the objectives of the opening are the capture of the center and the rapid mobilization of the pieces, then in the middlegame the position of the center has already taken some concrete shape, and the plans of the parties arise from the actions of the already mobilized figures.
The opening and the middlegame are closely related, and the middlegame plan logically continues the opening line, merging with it into a single concept. The same connection can be seen between the middlegame and the endgame. Formally, the middlegame ends at the moment when the kings are no longer in danger and they turn from passive figures into active ones.
Multi-move (Multi-move problem) - a problem with a task: White starts and checkmates Black in more than four moves.
Blitz Game - see Blitz.
Motive of a combination - features of the position that make it possible to carry out a tactical operation, for example, unprotected pieces or important squares, overloading of pieces and pawns, cramped position of pieces and especially the king, weakness of the last rank.
Starting position - the position of the pieces on the board before the start of the game.

Draw - the result of the game. The game is considered to be ended in a draw in one of the following cases:
a) If a position has arisen where none of the players can mate the opponent's king with any series of possible moves. For example: one of the opponents has a king, the other has a king or a king with a minor piece; both opponents have a king with a bishop, and the bishops are of the same color.
b) A stalemate has been created.
c) One of the opponents offers a draw, and the other accepts this offer;
d) One of the opponents, having established that in the last 50 or more moves there have been no captures on the board and not a single pawn has made a move, demands the end of the game (rule of 50 moves);
e) One of the opponents, having established that the position has been repeated three (or more) times, or that it will be repeated for the third (or more) time after his move (without making a move on the board), has the right to demand the termination of the game and its recognition as ended in a draw (three times repetition of the position). Identical positions are those where not only the position of the pieces is the same, but the turn of the move each time belongs to the same side, and all the possibilities of the position are preserved, such as capture on the passage or the possibility of castling.
f) One of the players has run out of time, but his opponent cannot checkmate with any series of possible moves.
Knockout System - see Knockout System
Chess notation is a system for recording the flow of a game or a certain position.
FIDE recognizes one system for recording a game for its tournaments and matches - the algebraic one and recommends its use also for chess literature and periodicals. Forms for recording games, in which a different notation is applied instead of algebraic, cannot be used as supporting documents in cases where players' forms are used. The referee, seeing that the player is using a notation other than algebraic, must warn him about this requirement.
Each shape is identified by the first capital letter of the shape name. Each player can use the first letter of the name adopted in his country to designate a piece. For example, in Russian notation: Kr - king (in Russian notation, the first two letters are used for the king), F - queen, L - rook, C - bishop, K - knight. The name of the pawn is not indicated.
The fields of the chessboard are designated horizontally by letters of the Latin alphabet (from "a" to "h"), vertically - by Arabic numerals (from "1" to "8").

Each move of a piece is determined by the first letter of the name of the piece in question and the square to which the piece went. There is no hyphen between them.
For example: Be5, Nf3, Rd1. In the case of pawns, only the squares to which they went are indicated. For example: e5, d4, a5. When a piece makes a capture, an "x" is placed between the first letter and the square it moves to. Examples: Bxe5, Rxf3, Rxd1. When a pawn is captured, not only the square on which it stands, but also the file that it leaves is indicated. For example fxe5, gxh6. If two pieces of the same name can move to the same square, then indicate which of them makes a move, for example, Rad1, N2xe4.
In the case of a pawn promotion, the actual pawn move is indicated and the letter of the new piece is indicated. Examples: d8Ф, f8K, b1С, g1Л.
Long castling is designated "0-0-0", short "0-0", check "+", double check "++", checkmate "#". When recording a move, its ordinal number is indicated.
For clarity, here is a record of a short game: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 d6 4. Nc3 Bg4 5. 0-0 Nd4? 6. Nxe5! Cxd1 ?? 7. Bxf7 + Ke7 8. Nd5 #.
The descriptive notation used in the countries of English, Spanish and Portuguese is much less convenient. In special cases, special notations are used: digital notation (in international correspondence competitions) and others.
Обратный мат, или кипергань (от франц. qui perd gagne — кто проигрывает, тот выигрывает), — одна из старейших разновидностей «сказочных шахмат» белые начинают и заставляют черных дать себе (белым) мат в заданное число ходов. There are two ways to do this: to deprive Black of all free moves so that only the mating ones remain, or, by attacking the king, to force the mating move.

Kubbel. Reverse checkmate in 2 moves.
1. Nc6. 1 ... dc 2. Bc5; 1 ... b6 2. Bxb6; 1 ... b5 2. Kb4; 1 ... ba 2. Ka5; 1 ... fe 2. Ke5; 1 ... f6 2. Bd4; 1 ... f5 2. Bf4; 1 ... fg 2. Bg5.

Olympic System - see Elimination System.
Descriptive notation is a system for recording the flow of a party or a certain position, adopted in the countries of English, Spanish and Portuguese. See Chess Notation.
According to this system, the verticals are denoted not by letters, but by the names of the pieces that were on them in the initial position (for example, "a" - the queen's rook's vertical (in the English QR notation), "d" - the queen (Q), "g" - the king's knight (KN)), and the horizontal lines - in Arabic numerals from "1" to "8", with each side counting from itself. Thus, each field receives a double designation, depending on who is recording - white or black. Other signs, the most important (in the English notation), have some differences: check - ch, checkmate - mate.
This is how the notation looks like a short game according to descriptive notation (1.e4 e5 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. Cc4 d6 4. Kf3 Cg4 5. 0-0 Kd4 6. Kxe5 Cxd1 7. Cxf7 + Kpe7 8. Kd5 #): 1. Р— K4 (the pawn went to the fourth square of the king) P-K4 (the same thing, Black is counting the rankings away from himself). 2. N — KB3 (the knight moved to the third square of the king's bishop) N — QB3 3. B — QB4 P — Q3 4. N — QB3 B — KN5 5. O — O N — Q5? 6. NxP! BxQ ?? 7. BxP ch K — K2 8. N — Q5 mate.
Opposition - opposition of kings on the same line through one square (near opposition), three or five squares (far opposition). The opposition can be vertical, horizontal or diagonal.
Releasing the line is a tactical technique in the composition, which consists in clearing the line for the maneuver of the figure. Distinguish between a simple release of the line (the figure leaves the line) and thematic (the figure maneuvers along the line).
Clearing the field is a tactical technique in composition, which consists in leaving a piece from the field, which is necessary for another piece. Clearing the field for the king is called unlocking.
Complication of a position is a technique aimed at creating a complex one from a simpler position. Complication of a position can be beneficial when the opponent has an advantage and the other side seeks to confuse the position so that it is easier to make a mistake, and when playing in a simple position does not promise any chances of winning and the only way to fight for victory is to create a complex, sometimes not amenable to precise calculation of the situation .
Distraction - a tactical technique in the composition, which consists in the distraction of an enemy piece (usually by means of sacrifices) from the defense of the field or line; this circumstance is exploited by the opposing party.
Postponing - a break in a game that remains unfinished in regulation time. When setting aside, the position on the board and the control clock are recorded on the envelope. The one for whom it is the turn to move at this moment does not make it on the board (the move must remain unknown to the opponent), but writes it down in full notation on his own letterhead, which is inserted together with the opponent's letterhead in an envelope. The envelope is sealed by the competition judge, which ensures the secrecy of the recorded move. See Finishing the game. Currently, the postponement of the party is carried out in exceptional cases.
Open line - the vertical of the chessboard, free of pawns. Having an open lane is a significant positional advantage, often enough to win. Capturing an open line with rooks allows it to be used for important re-rolls of pieces, in particular for mastering the second (seventh) or first (eighth) rank and creating serious threats along it.

Open attack - an attack carried out by the removal of a piece or a pawn from the line of action of the attacking piece. Opened check and double check are special cases of open attack.
Open Check - see Open Check
Backward pawn - a pawn that cannot stand next to its pawn on an adjacent file.

a7, c7, g3 - backward pawns.

Position Evaluation - identifying the features and capabilities of the position. For a correct assessment of the position, it is necessary to take into account the quantitative correlation of forces, the relative value of the pieces and pawns, their mobility, the weakness and strength of the fields, the interaction of forces. This allows you to determine all the tactical and strategic opportunities lurking in the position, defense and attack opportunities, to choose a game plan that matches a specific situation. Position assessment consists of the following elements: identifying position opportunities, calculating options and assessing the final position to which the player is striving. The evaluative ability of a chess player determines the strength of his game.
Party - the process of chess struggle from the first move until the final result is revealed. It is customary to distinguish three phases in a game: opening, middlegame and endgame.
Stalemate - a position in which the player who must move has no move allowed by the rules, and his king is not in check, for example (stalemate when White moves):

A game in which a stalemate occurs is considered to be ended in a draw.
Overload - the performance of two or more functions by a piece or pawn. May serve as a motive for a combination on the theme of distraction.

The b7-pawn is overloaded, since it simultaneously protects two pieces: the a6-pawn and the c6-bishop. Therefore 1. Bxa6 ba 2. Rxc6 wins a pawn.
Passing the move to the opponent is a technique due to which one side passes the turn to the other without changing the position on the board. Drive transmission is achieved through a series of maneuvers, for which more maneuvering fields may be an important factor.
Overlap - the idea of ​​a tactical strike, as a result of which the line of action of an enemy piece is blocked.
Intersection - an extensive group of combinations in a problem (study), built on the use of points of intersection of the lines of action of two or more distant figures.
Rearrangement of moves - change the order of moves in the intended variation. Sometimes the rearrangement of moves is not essential, but sometimes it makes it possible to change the course of the struggle.
Pawn structure - placement of pawns on the board. The pawn structure has a huge impact on the entire course of the struggle, it largely determines the game plan of the parties. The moment of choosing one or another pawn structure is very important, since the pawns only move forward and their every movement to some extent weakens the rear in their own camp.
Pawn chain - pawns of the same color, located diagonally and protecting each other. The simplest example of a pawn chain is white pawns c3-d4-e5. They are all links of the same pawn chain, and the c3-pawn is the base or base of the pawn chain.
The pawn chain can be mobile, that is, one of the links of the pawn chain can be promoted on occasion, and blocked when the pawn chain is closely opposed by the same pawn chain of the opponent. The attack of the pawn chain is carried out most often against the base, since the base of the pawn chain, unlike its links, is not protected by a pawn.
Pawn advantage - more than the opponent's number of pawns on a certain part of the board. The presence of a pawn advantage is taken into account when drawing up a game plan; even the ideas of some opening variations are based on this.
Пешечный штурм — один из приемов ведения борьбы. Чаще всего пешечный штурм направлен против позиции неприятельского короля с целью разрушить его прикрытие и обеспечить «дорогу» собственным фигурам для матовой атаки. Успех пешечного штурма прежде всего зависит от расположения пешек противника на атакуемом участке.
It is most difficult to conduct a pawn assault when the opponent's pawns are located in one row in their original places and control all points of the sixth rank (for black) or the third (for white). Each advance creates objects for a possible attack on them.
Pawn - moves only vertically forward one square; from the initial position, it can go vertically to two fields at once; unlike the pieces, it takes not along the path of its movement, but diagonally, one square forward.
Pawns are abbreviated as - p., When recording a game, the designation of the pawn is not indicated by their first letter, but is recognized due to the absence of such a letter, the graphic designation is, in English - P (Pawn), in Spanish - P (Peon).

If a pawn from its original place goes to two squares and is next to the opponent's pawn horizontally, the latter can make a capture on the passage. In the initial position, each side has eight pawns, occupying all squares of the second (for Black seventh) rank. The pawn that reaches the last rank (eighth for White, first for Black) must be replaced by the same move with a queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same color of the player's choice, regardless of whether these pieces are on the board. This change is called pawn promotion. Depending on the file on which the pawn is located, it is called king, queen, rook, bishop, knight. Pawns "e" and "d" are also called central, "a" and "h" - extreme.
The following names are also used: passed pawn, isolated pawn, tied pawns, backward pawn, doubled (tripled) pawns, blocked pawn, hanging pawns.
The Plan is a general idea that unites separate operations of the parties, directed towards a specific goal. Drawing up a plan and putting it into practice is one of the main tasks in a chess game.
Choosing the right plan for the situation requires an accurate and in-depth assessment of the position. At the same time, you have to fend off the plans of the enemy. This leads to the fact that each separate move of the plan solves the specific task of the given position and, depending on the actions of the enemy, it is often necessary to change the strategic plan or the tactical method of its implementation. The plan is the basis of every game.
Side solution - solving a problem (etude) in a way different from the author's. A side solution in a problem is called complete if it starts from the first move, and partial (dual) if it is possible to bypass the author's intention in variants.
Repetition of an idea, a maneuver is an important means of artistic expression in a composition, which consists in the fact that an idea (maneuver) or one of its elements is repeated several times to enhance the aesthetic impact.
Positional draw - a group of draw themes in the study, where the strongest side is deprived of the opportunity to use its overwhelming advantage for positional reasons. The main types of positional draw: a) fortress; b) blockade; c) binding; d) eternal attack. The term "positional draw" is also applied to positions in which a draw is achieved in one of the indicated ways.
Position - the location of forces on the chessboard. With each move of one of the parties, the position changes, and the partners must always evaluate the emerging positions, taking into account the peculiarities and opportunities lurking in them, which is very important for choosing the right plan.
The term "position" is also used in a narrow sense, that is, the position of a piece or pawn.
Field - one of 64 cells of the chessboard.

Semi-binding is a special mechanism in the problem when there are two black pieces between the black king and the white ranged piece, and the departure of one of them from the line allows White to checkmate using the pin of the other. If both black thematic pieces create variations with a pin, the semi-bond is called complete.
Rule of fifty moves - the game is considered to be ended in a draw on the basis of the correct statement of the player, who is next moves are made by players without moving pawns and capturing any piece; the last 50 moves were made by each player without moving pawns or capturing any piece. Correct checkmate (stalemate) is a matte (stalemate) position that is both clean and economical.
Pawn promotion - the pawn that reaches the very last rank from its original position (eighth for white, first for black) must be replaced with a queen or rook, or bishop, or knight of the same color, this is part of the move. The action of the new figure begins immediately. The player's choice is not limited to pieces that have already been taken.
Advantage - the superiority of one side over the other, which can be of various types. The material advantage may consist in the presence of one of the parties superiority in strength, positional - in the better arrangement of pieces and pawns. The advantage is the possession of initiative, attack, pawn superiority on the flank, better maneuverability of pieces, possession of important points, presence of weaknesses in the opponent's camp, etc.
Attraction is a tactical technique in composition, which consists in luring an opponent's piece onto the field or line (usually by means of sacrifices), where it interferes with the defense.
Anchoring is a theme in the study, which is a kind of positional draw. It consists in the fact that the weaker side is saved by tying one or more of the opponent's pieces to the defense of certain squares. Tying the opponent's pieces to the defense of other pieces and pawns limits their attacking possibilities.

Kozlovsky. Draw.
1. Rf8 + Kpd7 2. Rf7 + Kpe6 3. Rf5 =. Now the h6-rook cannot leave due to 4. Rf6 +, and the king's moves will lead to the resumption of checks.

Problemist - compiler of chess problems.
Loss - the result of the game. The game is considered lost if: a) receiving a checkmate; b) recognizing himself as defeated; c) delays in time. In addition, a defeat may be counted as a violation of the rules of conduct for the competition.
Breakthrough is a technique whose purpose is to open lines, diagonals, and then capture them, invade the enemy's camp, create an advantage in a certain area of ​​the board, or form a passed pawn. Typical breakout example:

1.b6 ab (1 ... cb 2.a6) 2.c6 bc 3.a6.

Time expired - exceeding the time limit given for thinking over moves (fixed by dropping the control flag on the chess clock). In case of delay in time, the chess player is considered a defeat. However, if the opponent in the final position cannot checkmate with any series of possible moves according to the rules, then the game is considered to have ended in a draw.
Space - 64 cells of the chessboard, on which the pieces move, that is, the game takes place in the game. The struggle for the conquest of space, as a result of which one's own pieces are provided with a greater scope of action, which means that the freedom of movement of the opponent's forces is reduced - one of the important principles of chess strategy. Space advantage is one of the types of positional advantage.
Opponents are two sides between which a chess game is played. The adversary can be either one person or a team of several persons. In this case, the party is called a consulting party.
Passed pawn - a pawn on the file of which, as well as on the adjacent files, there are no enemy pawns. If a passed pawn is defended by another pawn, it is called a defended passed pawn. A passed pawn located far from the enemy king is called a distant passed pawn.

a5, c5, f4 and h5 are passed pawns. a5 is a distant passed pawn, f4 and h5 are protected passed pawns.
As a rule, having a passed pawn on one side is an advantage; its blockade fetters the enemy's figure. The most dangerous passed pawns in the endgame, especially the connected or distant passed pawn in the pawn ending. The fight against passed pawns comes down first of all to their blockade.
Pointe combination (French pointe) - the most subtle and hidden move (top, "nail") of the combination in the study. In the same sense, the term is used in the practical game.
Unblocking is a tactical technique in composition, which consists in leaving a piece from the square necessary for the king.
Unleashing is a tactical technique in composition. In a two-move, less often in a three-move, unleashing can serve as the topic of the problem. Distinguish between direct unleashing, when the tying figure itself leaves the ligament line, and indirect untiing, carried out by overlapping the ligament line with another figure. Exchange - removal of equal pieces from the board. The term "exchange" also has a deeper meaning: an operation to achieve certain goals. The exchange is undertaken with the aim of: gaining the tempo; do not waste time retreating; destroy enemy forces defending important points; give up your "bad" piece for a "good" opponent. With the help of an exchange, one can weaken the enemy's pawn position and create weaknesses in his camp. The exchange is also undertaken in order to seize control of the open line or to transfer the game into a profitable endgame. The latter is often a way of realizing a material advantage. The exchange is sometimes also one of the means of defense - the defending side by means of exchanges seeks to weaken the opponent's attack.
Colored bishops is a term referring to positions where opponents have elephants walking on different colored squares. In the endgame, the presence of opposite-colored bishops often facilitates the defense of the weaker side and allows it to achieve salvation, since the enemy cannot take control of squares inaccessible to his bishop. On the contrary, in the middlegame, opposite-colored bishops in many cases contribute to the success of the attack, since it is difficult for the enemy to eliminate (exchange) the bishop actively participating in the offensive.
Unblocking - giving the opponent a move in the stalemate position. In the problem, unraveling is a constituent element in a number of logical combinations.
Elo rating is a system of indicators of the relative strength of chess players, proposed by the American professor Elo. Elo adopted a formula by which the expected results of chess players are calculated, depending on their initial ratings. If a player gains more than expected, his rating grows and vice versa. In the Elo rating system, it is established that in a meeting of chess players of neighboring categories (a rating difference of 200 points), a player with a higher rating must score 0.76 points, and with a lower 0.24, with a rating difference of 100 points - 0.65 and 0, 35 points. The rating change is determined by the formula: rating_ change = (achieved_result - expected_result) * k, where k is a conversion factor of 30 for beginners, 10 for chess players who have reached a rating of 2400 and 15 for all others. Elo formula: expected_result = (1 + erf (rating_difference / 400)) / 2, where erf is the error function (Laplace function). Calculation by the formula is complicated, so Elo presented the values ​​obtained by this formula in the form of a table.
See Chess Rating Calculator.
Record problem (study) - a composition in which the theme is expressed in the maximum form, for example, a two-move with the movement of a knight to all eight available squares (a knight's wheel) or with five self-binding of a black queen.
X-ray - the impact of a long-range piece on any square through an enemy piece.

White bishop b2 affects the h8-square through the black bishop g7: 1. Rh8 Bhh8 2. Rhh8 #

Retrograde analysis - restoration of a conditional game (in whole or in part), leading to the initial position of a problem or study, by finding a series of previous moves of both sides. R.'s goal and. can be different: to prove the possibility of the initial position, to determine the order of the move, to prove the right to capture a pawn in the passage on the first move of the solution or the right to castle, etc.
Retroanalysis tasks constitute a special group of compositions with various tasks, for the solution of which it is necessary to carry out retroanalysis beforehand.
In addition to tasks for the actual retrograde analysis, there are tasks for taking moves back. In the latter, two types of tasks are distinguished;
a) White takes back the last move and gives mate in a given number of moves;
b) retromats - after taking back a number of moves, White gives mate in one move.
Solution of the problem (study) - finding a sequence of moves by white and black, leading in all variations to the fulfillment of the author's task. If at least one variant of the task is not fulfilled, the task (study) is not solved; if there are several ways to complete the task, the task (study), in addition to the author's, has one or more side solutions.
Castling - moving the king and rook in one move, which can be carried out by either side only once during the game. Castling is carried out as follows: the king is moved two squares towards the rook, after which the rook passes over the king and moves to the adjacent square. Castling towards the queenside is called long (abbreviated as 0-0-0), towards the kingside - short (0-0).

position before White castling on the kingside and Black castling on the queenside

flank position after white castling on the kingside and black castling on the queenside

position before White castling on the queenside and Black castling on the kingside

flank position after white castling on the queenside and black castling on the kingside.
Castling is impossible if the king or rook has already moved in the game. Castling is temporarily impossible if the king is in check; the king, as a result of castling, falls under check; the square through which the king must pass is attacked by an opponent's piece; between the king and the rook, towards which the king is moved, there are other pieces. The opponent's pieces are considered to attack the square even if they cannot move. Castling is a king's move. If the player who wants to castling touches the king, but castling in that direction is not possible, the player must move the king, including castling to the other side, provided that it is possible. If the king has no move, the player can make any possible move. If the player who wants to castle touches the rook first, he must move with the rook.
Castling plays a large role in strategy and tactics. Removing the king from the center strengthens the security of his position, and moving the rook to the center serves to mobilize forces. Often one side makes material sacrifices in order to deprive the other side of castling and then begin an attack on the king stuck in the center. Castling in a composition is allowed on any move of the decision, if it cannot be proved that the king or rook, towards which White or Black wants to castle, has already moved in the game. Castling serves as one of the main topics of analytical tasks.
Tied pawns - standing on adjacent files next to each other or defending one another.

Pin - an attack by a queen, rook or bishop on a pawn or a piece covering either another piece, more valuable, or an important square. The mobility of a tied piece or pawn is limited. A pin includes a connecting piece, a connected piece or pawn and an obscured piece, pawn or important square, with all three objects on the same rank, file or diagonal.
They are distinguished by a partial linkage, when a linked figure can move along the linkage line, and a full linkage, when this is not possible.
A pin, when the piece is covered by a king, is called an absolute pin, the rest are called relative pin. With an absolute pin, the pinned piece can only move along the pinned line, while the action of the pinned piece against the opponent's king remains in effect.
Doubled (built) pawns - two (three) pawns of one side, located on the same file.

c2, c3 - doubled pawns, f5, f6, f7 - built pawns.

Doubled pawns are often, especially in endgames, a significant weakness. However, by agreeing to the formation of doubled pawns in your camp, you can get certain benefits in return. First of all, when the pawns are doubled, the lines are opened, which can be successfully captured by the side in the position of which the doubled pawns were formed. Doubled pawns are weaker when they are isolated. But there are exceptions here: double-isolated pawns in the center sometimes control important points.
Simultaneous game session is a massive chess event in which a strong chess player (grandmaster, master, etc.) plays simultaneously against a large number of chess players. Most often, the seancer (that is, the person conducting the seance) plays all the games with white. Along with the usual session of the simultaneous game, there are:
a session with a clock (held against a relatively small number, usually 6-10, qualified chess players playing with the usual time control; the seancer has this time for all games);
"blind" session (the session player plays without looking at the board);
an alternative session (not one session, but two or more, and they do not consult among themselves).
Simultaneous play is a good way to popularize chess.
Symbolic task - a task, the initial (final) position or the process of solving which depicts some letter, figure, etc. Symbolic tasks were widespread in the 19th century.

Korolkov. Checkmate in 2 moves.
1.d8K, the bottle opens and the cork hits the ceiling!

Buchholz System - a system of additional indicators used to determine the occupied places by participants who have scored an equal number of points. The Buchholz system is the sum of the points of each of the player's opponents. The averaged Buchholz is also used (the averaged Buchholz -2, for example, is the Buchholz exponent from which the two highest and two lowest results of the competitors are subtracted) and the truncated Buchholz (the truncated Buchholz -2, for example, is the Buchholz exponent from which two the lowest scores of the opponents).
Sonneborn-Berger System - a method of determining the best result (coefficient) in the event that several participants in the tournament have scored the same number of points. The coefficient of the participants is equal to the sum of the points of the opponents from whom they won and half of the points of the opponents with whom they drew.
In fact, the Sonneborn - Berger coefficient system gives an advantage to the player who won against strong players and lost to the weak in front of a “normal” player who lost to the strong and outperformed the weak. Sonneborn - Berger odds are widely used, especially in round robin tournaments.
The Sonneborn - Berger system is not objective, therefore in important cases (determination of the champion, admission to the next stage of a major competition) it is customary to hold an additional competition. The mixed method is also used (in case of equal points in the additional competition, the Sonneborn - Berger coefficient decides).
Along with the system of Sonneborn - Berger coefficients, other methods of identifying an advantage in case of equal points are used: by the number of victories, by the result of a meeting with each other, etc.
Koya System - a method of determining the best result (coefficient) in the event that several participants in the tournament scored the same number of points. The Koya system takes into account the number of points scored against all opponents who have achieved a score of 50% or more. Used in round robin tournaments. The Koya system can be expanded step by step to include scoring groups with less than 50% points, or reduced step by step to exclude players with 50% or more points.
The logic is the same as that of the Sonneborn - Berger coefficient system: the advantage is gained by the participant who won against strong players and lost to weak ones.
Knockout System is a tournament system in which a losing competitor is eliminated from the competition. In case of a draw, the match is replayed.
The knockout system allows for a tournament with a large number of participants in a short time. Therefore, it is often used in mass competitions. However, the knockout system makes it possible to determine only the strongest participant in the competition, since the second strongest participant can meet with the strongest long before the last round. Therefore, the Olympic system is not suitable for qualifying competitions, as well as for tournaments where it is necessary to identify winners.
The Olympic system also has a number of shortcomings - uncertainty about the duration of the competition for the participants; participants spend time and money in order to take part in the tournament, and half of them are eliminated after one game (or one match) played.
Systems of additional indicators - additional indicators used to determine the occupied places by participants who scored an equal number of points.
The following additional metrics apply:
For round robin tournaments: Sonnenborn-Berger system, Koya system, number of wins, more games played by black pieces, face-to-face meeting.
For tournaments according to the Swiss system: Buchholz system, Sonnenborn-Berger system, progress coefficient, number of victories, more games played by black pieces, head-to-head, average rating of opponents, tournament rating (performance).
All systems have their own advantages and disadvantages, their own logic, but none of them is objective and, by and large, the distribution of seats is random and sometimes contrary to common sense.
To determine the first place, the title of champion or qualifying places, additional competitions are also held, including those with a short control.
Fairy Chess is a kind of compositional area in which generally accepted rules of the game or material change. The most common types of fairy chess are:
1) from a group of problems with a modified task - cooperative checkmate, inverse checkmate;
2) from the group of problems with a modified board shape - "cylindrical chess": a regular board is bent outward in the form of a cylinder in such a way that the lines "a" and "h" touch each other.
3) from the group of problems with modified rules for the movement of pieces - maxima: Black is obliged to make geometrically long moves, and the move of a piece one square horizontally (vertical) is taken as 1, diagonally - as 1.41, knight's move - as 2.23 , short castling - for 4, long - for 5; for example, the move a1-f6, equal to 7.05, is longer than the move al-a8, equal to 7. Usually maxima are found in backmate problems;
4) tasks with new shapes.

Onitiu. Checkmate in 6 moves. On the f2 square is a cricket, a piece that moves (and hits) across the square occupied by one of its own or someone else's piece.
1.g3 Bvh4 2.g4 Bf4 3.g5 Bh6 4.g6 Bf6 5.g7 Bh8 6.ghB #

Bishop - moves and takes diagonally to any number of fields. The bishop cannot move across a square occupied by another piece. The elephant is abbreviated as - C, graphically -, in English - B (Bishop, bishop), in Spanish - A (Alfil).

In the initial position, each side has two bishops - light-squared and dark-squared (that is, walking along white and black squares, respectively). White bishops are located on c1 and f1, black - on c8 and f8. In terms of strength, a bishop is approximately equal to a knight or three pawns. The name "Elephant" is of Indian origin and serves as one of the linguistic proofs that the birthplace of chess is India. It has survived only in Russian.
Chess competition - is held on the basis of the accepted FIDE rules (in Russia - on the basis of the “chess” rules of the sport approved by the order of the Ministry of Sports and Tourism of Russia dated November 21, 2011).
Depending on the nature, composition of participants, form of holding, goals, they are distinguished:
Competition over the board, correspondence competition.
Individual competition (participants are individual chess players), consultation competition (participants, in part or in full, are consultants), team competition (participants are teams).
National competitions (participants - chess players from one country), international competitions (participants - chess players from different countries).
Tournament, match, match-tournament.
Qualifying competition (aiming to identify the participants of the next, higher, stage of the competition).
Qualifying competition (held specifically for a qualifying purpose, for example, a tournament for a certain rank, etc.). Training competition (held not for a sporting purpose, but for the participants to check their opening preparation, practical form, etc.). Thematic competitions.
Mass competitions.
Stuck checkmate - checkmate in which own pieces take away all squares from the king for retreat.

Statistician (statistic piece) - a piece in a chess composition that does not move to another field in the process of solving a problem or study.
Strategy is the general direction of the struggle, the plan as a whole, while tactics, being a subordinate part of the strategy, is engaged in the implementation of individual tasks of the strategic plan. The correct strategy is based on a specific and comprehensive assessment of the position, based on the so-called general considerations (center, open and half-open lines, weaknesses of pawns and squares, interaction of pieces, space, time, development). When choosing a strategic plan, it is necessary to take into account material factors, positional factors, take into account the basic principles of strategy and tactical means operating in a given position, take into account combination motives. The strategy should be flexible, take into account not only your own capabilities, but also the opposing chances of your opponent.
Scheveningen system - a system of holding chess competitions, in which each member of one group of participants plays with all members of another group. Received its name from the tournament in Scheveningen, 1923, where it was first applied.
The Scheveningen system is used both in tournaments where points are scored individually (for example, tournaments where masters play against candidates for masters), and in matches where points are scored as a team.
Competition table - can be of different types: a table of results (shows the individual results of the participants, the number of points scored by them, in the tournaments - the places they still occupy). The table of movement by rounds - shows the number of points scored by the participants after each round. Game Queue Tables - In round robin tournaments, the order in which participants will meet (including the color of the pieces they play with each other) is determined throughout the competition. Participants' numbers are established by drawing lots.
See Round-robin Table and Schedule.
Tactics - a subordinate part of the strategy, dealing with the implementation of individual operations of the strategic plan. However, tactics can also have an independent meaning for achieving victory - often individual tactical strikes determine the outcome of the entire battle. If the strategy is based on the general principles of the game, then the tactics are based on a specific calculation of the real possibilities inherent in a given position. When conducting a tactical operation, a correct and deep assessment of the position that arises after the completion of the operation is necessary. The most important, the most common ideas of tactical techniques are the following: luring, distraction, blocking, clearing the field, overlapping, destroying the defense, open attack, etc.
Task is a record task, composition in which the theme is expressed in the maximum form.
The theme of an eternal attack - a draw theme in the study, which consists in the fact that White continuously pursues one or more of the opponent's pieces, depriving him of the opportunity to use material or positional advantage. T. v. n. has the following varieties: a) actually an eternal attack; b) perpetual check (a special case of both types - "mad piece"); c) mutual attack; d) alternate attack.
Combination theme - the final position of the combination, which implements the combination intention, for example: double hit, pawn promotion, checkmate, stalemate, perpetual check, etc.
Pata theme is a popular draw theme in the etude where White saves with a stalemate (which should usually be correct).
Thematic competition is a competition in which all games are played with a predetermined opening.
Tempo - in a chess fight has a double meaning. The word "tempo" can be understood as the rhythm of the development of events. For example, a slow and fast paced game. In a narrower concept in chess, tempo is a move: for example, to win a tempo - to get one move ahead of the opponent, or to lose tempo - one of the pieces or pawns, instead of going straight to the desired square, did it in two steps.
Theoretical draw is a term referring to positions where, as established by theory, if played correctly, the weaker side makes a draw, although the opponent has a seemingly sufficient advantage to win: for example, the king, bishop and extreme pawn if the color of the bishop is opposite to the color of the pawn promotion square, do not win against the lone king:

The theoretical draw is an important motive in the sketch composition.
Technique - mastery of fighting techniques in typical positions, in particular, the ability to use the achieved advantage in the shortest possible way. The playing of a number of positions by chess players who are good at technique is more or less mechanical in nature. The technique manifests itself most clearly in the endgame, where the studied, typical positions are more common.
Quiet move - without a check, without threats visible at first glance, but in fact, a move containing dangers for the enemy, often a decisive outcome of the struggle.
Triangle is one of the ways to transfer the turn to the opponent. A classic on the triangle theme is the following example:

If Black is in this position, he immediately loses, since 1 ... Kc7 is followed by 2. Kc5, and 1 ... Kd8 (1 ... Kb8) - 2. Kd6.
Passing Black's move is achieved in the following way: 1. Kd4 Kd8 (or 1 ... Kb8) 2. Krs4 Kc8 3. Kd5, and the goal is achieved. White, having made the king's route along the d5-d4-c4-d5 triangle, passed the move to Black.

Three-way - a problem with a task; White starts and mates Black in three moves. The most common type of problem after two-move.
Three-fold repetition of a position - the game is recognized as ended in a draw according to the correct statement of the player, after whom it is turn to move, if the same identical (identical) position is at least three times (not necessarily a repetition of moves): may occur if he will first write down his move on the scoresheet and declare his intention to make that move to the arbiter; a player has already appeared, after whom it is the turn to move, requires a draw. The mentioned positions are considered the same if it is the turn of the same player, and the pieces of the same type and color occupy the same squares, and the possible moves of all the pieces of both players have not changed.
Positions are not considered identical (identical) if the pawn, which could have been captured on the passage, in the position that has arisen cannot be captured in this way, or if the castling right in the position that has arisen or in the subsequent period of the game is lost.
Tour - the minimum game unit of a competition (tournament, match), during which all scheduled pairs meet each other. In a round robin tournament, the rounds are scheduled based on the tournament queue tables.
A tournament (German Turnier, which in the Middle Ages meant a knightly competition in strength and dexterity) is a competition in which each participant: a) plays with all participants in the order determined by the tables of the game queue in the tournament (round-robin tournament), or b ) plays selectively with a part of the participants (elimination system; Scheveningen system; Swiss system).
When both methods are combined, one speaks of a mixed system.
The most widespread system is the circular system, since it reduces the element of randomness in comparison with others.
This especially applies to tournaments held not in one round, but in two or more. Such tournaments, usually organized with a small number of participants, are called match tournaments - the participants seem to play small matches with each other.
Tournament rating (performance) - is determined according to special tables according to the average rating of opponents and the result shown by the player, similar to the procedure for assigning an initial rating. If the tournament rating (performance) shown by a player in this tournament is higher than his current rating, then this player increases his rating, if lower, then decreases.
It is used as an additional indicator to determine the occupied places by participants who have scored an equal number of points, but this indicator shows the same result as the average rating of opponents.
Heavy pieces is a common name for queen and rooks.
Threat - an attack on one of the objects of the enemy's position, creating a real danger to his position.
Simplifying a position is a technique due to which a simpler one is created from a difficult position. The simplification of the position is achieved by exchanging pieces and pawns, changing the nature of the position, as a result of which the sharpness decreases. The simplification of the position is beneficial when one side has a material or positional advantage, which is easier to realize in the endgame, or in an acute position, when the simplification makes it possible to reduce the danger of an attack.
Equation of position - elimination of the enemy's advantages as a result of the struggle and creation of a position with equal chances.
Conditional problem - a problem in the condition of which, in comparison with the composition of the usual type, an additional requirement is introduced (for example, a checkmate with a certain piece, on a given field, provided that certain pieces are immobile, without taking black forces, etc. ).
Eliminate Defense is an idea of ​​a tactical strike, as a result of which a piece defending the target is eliminated.
The account of the results of the game in the competition is carried out in the following way: the winning of the party - 1 point; draw - ²; loss - 0. In case of a defeat (when leaving the competition, not showing up for the game, etc.), the loser is given a minus "-", his opponent is given a plus "+". When summing up, plus is counted as one, minus as zero.
This system was not established immediately. For a long time it was customary to replay draws, sometimes the first or first two draws. For the first time a draw was set for "# 178; a point without replay was applied in the Baden-Baden tournament, 1870.
Nowadays, a system of accounting for game results is sometimes used when 3 points are awarded for a victory, 1 for a draw, and 0 for a defeat.
Queenside is a part of the chessboard, consisting of files from "a" to "d".

Queen - moves and captures vertically, horizontally or diagonally to any number of squares. The queen cannot move across a square occupied by another piece. The queen is abbreviated as - Ф, graphically -, in English - Q (Queen), in Spanish - D (Dama, queen).

In the initial position, each side has one queen. The white queen is located on the d1 square, the black one on d8. The square on which the queen is in the initial position is of the same color as itself. The queen is the strongest piece. Its value is approximately equal to two rooks or three minor pieces. The name “Queen” is of eastern origin (Arabic “queen”, Persian “firsan”).
Fianchetto - (Italian fianchetto - diminutive of fianco, which means flank, side) flank development of bishops by means of b2-b3 and Сc1-b2, g2-g3 and Cf1-g2 (respectively for black b7-b6 and Cc8-b7, g7-g6 and Cf8-g7).

Fianchetto is widely used in modern openings. Fianchetting means developing the bishop to the flank.
An extra (extra) piece - a piece in a chess composition that does not move to another square in the process of solving a problem or study. Figures - along with the board, they constitute a necessary accessory for a chess game. Before the start of the game, each opponent has the following pieces: 1 king, 1 queen, 2 rooks, 2 bishops, 2 knights and 8 pawns. For the positioning of the pieces before the start of the game, see the starting position. For the movement of pieces, see, respectively, “King”, “Queen”, “Rook”, “Bishop”, “Knight”, “Pawn”.
Fix - fix, define. A fixed pawn is a hindered pawn, a fixed position is a position with a defined pawn structure. The term “fix” is also used in relation to weak points: to fix the weakness, that is, to deprive the opponent of the opportunity to get rid of it.
Checkbox - see Chess clock.
Handicap (German: Vorgabe) - giving forward in the game between a strong and weak chess player in order to equalize the chances. The most common types of handicap are queen, rook, knight (most often knight b1), pawns (most often black f7 pawns) and one or two moves. The dacha forward game has been practiced in the past. Even competitions with a dacha ahead were arranged (handicap tournaments, from the English handicap - horse racing with equalizing conditions). From the beginning of the 20th century, the handicap fell out of use. Currently, the time-based handicap is practiced.
Outpost - a piece in the enemy camp behind the board's demarcation line, located on an open or half-open file. This piece is most often supported by a pawn, but sometimes by a rook or bishop. The outpost is a good base to receive attacks and can cause a serious weakening of the enemy's position. Practice has shown that the role of an outpost on the central files is best played by the knight, on the extreme - by the rook.
Force - force. The forced option is mandatory for one of the opponents, and sometimes for both. Dodging the forced option means exposing yourself to unpleasant consequences. You can force winning a pawn, a piece, a game, a draw, a perpetual check, a transition to an endgame, etc.
A window - giving the king an opportunity, if necessary, to leave the first (eighth) rank by advancing one of the pawns covering it after castling.
Move - 1) movement of a piece from one square to another, free from the piece;
2) capture of the opponent's piece;
3) pawn promotion;
4) castling.
Each move, including castling and capturing, must be done with only one hand!
A move is considered made when one of the opponents:
1) moved his piece from one field to another and took his hand away from it;
2) when capturing, he removed the opponent's piece from the board and, having put his piece in its place, took his hand away from it;
3) when capturing on the passage, removed the opponent's pawn from the board and, having put his pawn in a new place, took his hand away from it;
4) when castling put the rook in a new place and took his hand away from it;
5) when promoting a pawn, instead of a pawn that reached the cage of the last rank, he put some of his own pieces and took his hand away from this new piece.
When playing with a clock, a move is considered unfinished until the player has stopped his clock and turned on his partner’s clock, unless the move made ends the game.
Time trouble (German Zeitnot) - lack of time to think about moves. Forced to play at an accelerated pace under time pressure, chess players often make mistakes and oversights. Most often, time pressure is the result of wasted time.
The value of the pieces - the value of the piece in the chess struggle. The value of the pieces can be absolute and relative, for example, a knight is roughly equivalent to a bishop or three pawns, two rooks to a queen, a queen to three minor pieces, a rook to a minor piece and two pawns. This is the absolute value of the figures. However, depending on the specific position that arises in the course of the struggle, the absolute value of the pieces is violated and gives way to the relative one. Thus, in a closed pawn position, the knight is stronger than the bishop, and in an open position, especially when playing on two flanks, the bishop is much faster. A minor piece is usually stronger than three pawns in the middlegame, while pawns may be preferable in the endgame. The queen is stronger than two rooks in the opening and in the middle of the game with a closed nature of the struggle, when it is difficult for the rooks to establish interaction; if the efforts of the rooks are united, especially in the endgame, and even in the presence of passed pawns, the two rooks have an advantage over the queen. There is also a very rare violation of the absolute value of the pieces, especially during tactical operations. Depending on the location of the pawns, the relative value of the pieces can be so different from the absolute that they are called "good piece" or "bad piece".

Centralization - movement of pieces closer to the center of the board, from where they have a greater impact on the position of the enemy, and their striking power and maneuverability increase.
Numeric Notation is the notation used in international correspondence competitions. Each field of the chessboard is indicated by a two-digit number.

In correspondence, the move is written as a four-digit number, in which the first two digits indicate the field from which the piece is moving, and the last two - the field to which it is moved. The names of the pieces and the signs of capture, check, checkmate are omitted. Castling is indicated by the king's move. When a pawn is turned into a piece, the square on which this piece is in the initial position is additionally indicated in parentheses, for example, the move 47. b7-b8Ф is denoted - 47. 2728 (41).
Zugzwang - a position in which one of the sides or both (mutual zugzwang) have no useful moves and any move worsens the position.

The position of the mutual zugzwang, whose move is losing.
Chess clock is a clock with two movements and dials, mounted in one case and equipped with a device (buttons, levers) that allow, after making a move, to turn off one clock and turn on another. Thus, the chess clock shows the time spent by each of the players thinking over the moves. Both dials are equipped with a "flag", the fall of which accurately indicates that the large hand has reached 12. The double chess clock was invented by the Englishman Wilson and was first used in the London International Tournament in 1883 (previously, hourglasses were used mainly to control time).
Currently, an electronic clock is used, which allows you to set not only classical control, that is, a certain time for a certain number of moves or the whole game, but also control with the addition of time, and control with a time delay.
Black extra is a kind of problem where the arrangement of black material is in a static position.
Four-way (four-way problem) - a problem with a task; White starts and mates Black in four moves. The four-move allows for interesting and challenging combinations. This makes it one of the most promising sections of task composition.
Number of wins is an additional indicator used to determine the occupied places by participants who have scored an equal number of points.
Purity of the purpose of the move (maneuver) is an aesthetic requirement in the task, arising from the principle of economy of funds. It consists in the fact that each move (maneuver) should pursue only one goal; a plurality of goals for a move (maneuver) is allowed only if each of them is necessary for its implementation, which is proved with the help of thematic false traces.
Pure checkmate (stalemate) - checkmate (stalemate) in a problem or study in which all squares are inaccessible to the king for the only reason: either they are occupied by their own pieces, or are attacked once by the opponent's pieces.
Check - (symbol +) attack of a piece or pawn on the enemy king. The one of the opponents to whom the check is declared is obliged, during his retaliatory move, to retreat the king to a square that is not under the attack of an enemy piece, or to capture an enemy piece threatening the king, or to move any of his pieces to one of the squares located between the king and the attacking one. a piece (the last defense is impracticable if the knight is in check). No piece can make a move that puts or leaves its king in check. If the attack on the king cannot be eliminated by one of the methods, then there is a checkmate on the board, that is, the player who put the check and checkmate won the game.
The listed methods of protection are applicable for an ordinary or opened (open) check. However, with a double check, only one way of defense is possible - the retreat of the king. If one of the parties gives a series of continuously following checks, from which the enemy king cannot hide, a perpetual check occurs.
When recording a game, it is not necessary to indicate the check, that is, the "+" sign.
The term "Shah" comes from the Persian "shah" - king.
Chess 960 (Fischer's chess, random chess) - chess with an initial arrangement of pieces determined at random (by lot). The following conditions must be met: the pawns remain in their usual places, the king must be located between the rooks, the bishops must be on squares of different colors, the same-named pieces of white and black must be on the same files.
After castling, the king and the corresponding rook take their usual places: when castling on the queenside, the king on c1 (c8), the rook on d1 (d8), when castling on the kingside, the king on g1 (g8), and the rook on f1 (f8). When castling, it is necessary to ensure that there are no other pieces between the initial and final positions of the king and the rook, as well as the initial and final positions of the king and all squares between them are not under attack. Thus, for example, castling on the first move is possible if in the initial position the king is on f1 and the rook is on g1.
Fischer's Chess - see Chess 960.
The Swiss system is a tournament system (got its name because it was first introduced in the tournaments of the Swiss Workers' Chess Union). The Swiss system tournament is held as follows. Before the start, the number of rounds is set (usually 5-13). All participants are ranked by rating or in another way, for example, by drawing of lots. In the first round, the first half of the participants play with the second half, for example, with 20 participants, pairs 1-11, 2-12, etc. play. The color is determined by drawing lots for the first pair, and then the color changes, for example, if the first number plays white, then the second - black, the third - white, etc. In the subsequent rounds there are participants who have, if possible, an equal number of points. The pairing procedure before the start of each round is the same as for the first round. Participants who have already met each other should not play a second time. The color of the shapes alternates as much as possible. Before the next round, the result of all games must be revealed. If the number of participants is odd, then the last one in the given round gets a point (in the table it is indicated by "+"). Nowadays, computer programs are usually used to match pairs. The Swiss system allows a tournament with a wide coverage of participants in a short time and is quite applicable for a number of competitions, especially massive ones, with an unequal composition of participants. The maximum allowed number of participants is 2 to the degree N, where N is the number of rounds. However, some organizers hold massive tournaments in excess of this number, which can lead to a case when two participants scored one hundred percent, that is, a winner will not be revealed.
The Swiss system contains a large element of randomness and does not always give objective results.
Efficiency of funds is the most important artistic principle of composition.
As applied to the material, the principle of the economy of means is that only those figures that are strictly necessary for expressing the idea should be used in the task (study). In other words, with minimal material, maximum expressiveness should be achieved. The principle of economy and purity of the final positions follows from the principle of material economy (in particular, the requirement of the correct mat). When applied to the number of solution moves (mainly in the problem), the principle of economy of funds requires that the theme (concept) of the problem be expressed in the minimum required number of moves.
When applied to the idea (goal) of the move, the principle of economy of means is expressed in the requirement of purity of the goal of the move.
Economical checkmate (stalemate) - checkmate (stalemate) in a problem or study in which all pieces take part (in the problem, an exception is allowed only for the king and white pawns due to their low mobility).
Endgame (German: Endspiel - end of the game) is the final stage of a chess game. The term "ending" is used in the same sense. It is difficult to accurately draw the line separating the middlegame and the endgame. The endgame occurs most often when most of the pieces are exchanged, and first of all there are no queens. However, the absence of queens in itself is not a mandatory sign. The endgame is also possible with queens. Such are, for example, queen endings.
Compared to the middle of the game, the endgame is characterized by the following main features: The value of each piece is significantly increased; from the object of attack, the king turns into an active, attacking piece, taking part in the fight on equal terms; the role of pawns increases immeasurably. Material advantage, the activity of the king and pieces, and the presence of pawn weaknesses are essential factors determining the endgame assessment.
Epaulet checkmate - checkmate in which the rooks, standing on both sides of their king (forming, as it were, his "epaulettes"), take away the squares for retreat.

Etude is an artificial position in which one of the sides (usually White) is asked to complete a task without specifying the number of moves. Therefore, an etude is much closer to a practical game than a task. The starting position of the etude, as a rule, is natural and resembles the position from the game - most often from the endgame, less often from the middle of the game.
According to the assignment, the sketches are divided into two groups; 1) to win - White starts and wins (or, in short, a win); 2) for a draw - White starts and makes a draw (or, in short, a draw).
The solution to the etude is to find the only way conceived by the author leading to the task. The secrecy and difficulty of solving the etude is achieved by disguising the main idea with the help of an introductory game and giving Black opportunities for active counterplay. The study must observe the basic principles of chess composition. On the way of the development of the etude, these principles underwent changes: the range of topics expanded, the requirements for the form changed.
In terms of content, the studies are also divided into two groups: 1) analytical, in which the elements of analysis come to the fore; 2) combinational, in which the idea of ​​\ u200b \ u200bwork, combination is of the main importance. Analytical studies are especially close to the game, it can be viewed as a section of the endgame, but with the observance of the principle of uniqueness of the solution.
Sketchist - compiler of sketches.
Echo-mats (pats) - mats (pats) in a problem or study, the external pattern of which is exactly repeated in different versions